Mineralogy is the have a look at of chemistry, crystal shape, and bodily (together with optical) houses of minerals.

Specific research inside mineralogy encompass the methods of mineral starting place and formation, type of minerals, their geographical distribution, in addition to their utilization.


History of mineralogy:

Early writing on mineralogy, particularly on gemstones, comes from historical Babylonia, the historical Greco-Roman world, historical and medieval China, and Sanskrit texts from historical India.Books at the difficulty covered the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder which now no longer best defined many specific minerals however additionally defined lots of their houses. The German Renaissance expert Georgius Agricola wrote works including De re metallica (On Metals, 1556) and De Natura Fossilium (On the Nature of Rocks, 1546) which start the clinical technique to the difficulty. Systematic clinical research of minerals and rocks advanced in post-Renaissance Europe.[2] The cutting-edge have a look at of mineralogy changed into based at the ideas of crystallography and microscopic have a look at of rock sections with the discovery of the microscope withinside the seventeenth century.

Modern mineralogy:

Chalcocite, a copper ore mineral.Historically, mineralogy changed into closely worried with taxonomy of the rock-forming minerals; to this end, Its sports encompass coping with the naming of minerals (through the Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names), vicinity of acknowledged minerals, etc. As of 2004 there are over 4,000 species of mineral identified with the aid of using the IMA. Of these, possibly a hundred and fifty may be known as common, some other 50 are occasional, and the relaxation are uncommon to extraordinarily uncommon.

More recently, pushed with the aid of using advances in experimental technique (including neutron diffraction) and to be had computational power, the latter of which has enabled extraordinarily correct atomic-scale simulations of the behaviour of crystals, the technological know-how has branched out to recall greater popular troubles withinside the fields of inorganic chemistry and solid-nation physics. It, however, keeps a focal point at the crystal systems generally encountered in rock-forming minerals (including the perovskites, clay minerals and framework silicates). In particular, the sphere has made excellent advances withinside the expertise of the connection among the atomic-scale shape of minerals and their function; in nature, distinguished examples could be correct dimension and prediction of the elastic houses of minerals, which has brought about new perception into seismological behaviour of rocks and depth-associated discontinuities in seismograms of the Earth's mantle. To this end, of their recognition on the relationship among atomic-scale phenomena and macroscopic houses, the mineral sciences (as they may be now generally acknowledged) show possibly greater of an overlap with substances technological know-how than another discipline.

Physical mineralogy:

Physical mineralogy is the unique recognition on bodily attributes of minerals. Description of bodily attributes is the only manner to perceive, classify, and categorize minerals, and that they encompass:

crystal shape

crystal habit







unique gravity

Chemical mineralogy:

Chemical mineralogy specializes in the chemical composition of minerals that allows you to perceive, classify, and categorize them, in addition to a way to locate useful makes use of from them. There are some minerals which might be labeled as entire elements, together with sulfur, copper, silver, and gold, but the enormous majority of minerals are chemical compounds, a few greater complicated than others. In phrases of main chemical divisions of minerals, maximum are positioned withinside the isomorphous groups, which might be primarily based totally on analogous chemical composition and comparable crystal bureaucracy. A desirable instance of isomorphism type will be the calcite group, containing the minerals calcite, magnesite, siderite, rhodochrosite, and smithsonite.


Biomineralogy is a cross-over discipline among mineralogy, paleontology and biology. It is the have a look at of ways flowers and animals stabilize minerals beneathneath organic control, and the sequencing of mineral substitute of these minerals after deposition. It makes use of strategies from chemical mineralogy, particularly isotopic research, to decide things like increase bureaucracy in residing flowers and animals in addition to matters just like the authentic mineral content material of fossils.

Optical mineralogy:

Optical mineralogy is a particular recognition of mineralogy that applies reassets of mild as a way to perceive and classify minerals. All minerals which aren't a part of the cubic device are double refracting, wherein everyday mild passing via them is damaged up into aircraft polarized rays that tour at specific velocities and refracted at specific angles. Mineral materials belonging to the cubic device pertain best one index of refraction. Hexagonal and tetragonal mineral materials have indices, whilst orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic materials have 3 indices of refraction. With opaque ore minerals, contemplated mild from a microscope is wanted for identification.

Crystal shape:

X-rays are used to decide the atomic preparations of minerals and in an effort to perceive and classify them. The preparations of atoms outline the crystal systems of the minerals. Some very fine-grained minerals, including clays, generally may be diagnosed maximum without problems with the aid of using their crystal systems. The shape of a mineral additionally gives a particular manner of setting up isomorphism. With know-how of atomic preparations and compositions, one may also deduce why minerals have unique bodily houses [5], and one may also calculate how the ones houses alternate with strain and temperature. houses of opticakl minerals

Formation environments:

The environments of mineral formation and increase are exceptionally varied, starting from sluggish crystallization on the excessive temperature and pressures of igneous melts deep withinside the Earth's crust to the low temperature precipitation from a saline brine on the Earth's surface.

Various feasible techniques of formation encompass:

deposition from aqueous answers and hydrothermal brines

crystallization from an igneous magma or lava

recrystallization because of metamorphic methods and metasomatism

crystallization for the duration of diagenesis of sediments

formation with the aid of using oxidation and weathering of rocks uncovered to the environment or withinside the soil environment.


Minerals are crucial to diverse wishes inside human society, including minerals used for making improvements to fitness and fitness (including mineral water or commercially-bought vitamins), crucial additives of steel merchandise utilized in diverse commodities and machinery, crucial additives to constructing substances including limestone, marble, granite, gravel, glass, plaster, cement, plastics, etc. Minerals also are utilized in fertilizers to enhance the increase of agricultural crops.

Descriptive mineralogy:

Descriptive mineralogy summarizes outcomes of research achieved on mineral materials. It is the scholarly and clinical technique of recording the identification, type, and categorization of minerals, their houses, and their makes use of. Classifications for descriptive mineralogy includes:

local elements


oxides and hydroxides


carbonates, nitrates and borates

sulfates, chromates, molybdates & tungstates

phosphates, arsenates and vanadates


natural minerals

Determinative mineralogy

Determinative mineralogy is the real clinical manner of figuring out minerals, via records collecting and conclusion. When new minerals are discovered, a fashionable system of clinical evaluation is followed, together with measures to perceive a mineral's formula, its crystallographic records, its optical records, in addition to the overall bodily attributes decided and listed. Google Search Engine. Granite

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